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Pre-Service Teacher Education

Details: Culture of Education. The culture of pre-service teacher education is firmly anchored in the culture of education itself. The interactions that Bruner 1996 explores, what Bruner describes as the “cultural fit” between the needs of the culture and the needs of its members and their varied ways of knowing, is a lens for Goodlad 1990 and a precursor to the Labaree 2004 assessment of “ed

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Character Education

Details: The leading British character education researcher provides nearly comprehensive background and history of character education in primary and secondary schooling: excellent introductory resource that offers much bibliography for the reader’s deeper research. Doris, John M. 2002. Lack of character: Personality and moral behavior.

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Economics of Education

Details: Introduction. The economics of education is a rapidly growing and evolving field that applies a diverse array of economic theories, models, and quantitative methodologies to understand, analyze, and improve the performance of education systems. Economic theories, such as the theory of human capital, economic models, such as the input–output

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Case Study in Education Research

Details: Case study research in education: A qualitative approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. This is Merriam’s initial text on case study and is eminently accessible. The author establishes and reinforces various key features of case study; demonstrates support for positioning the case within a subject domain, e.g., psychology, sociology, etc.; and

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Teacher Training and Development

Details: Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Important synthesis and assessments of existing research on teacher education. Identifies what is known about the relationship between teacher education, teaching, and student learning and identifies a research agenda for

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Narrative Research in Education

Details: Education attends carefully to the larger social, cultural, linguistic, familial, and institutional narratives in which schooling also occurs. While debate is ongoing about the ways to engage in narrative research, researchers do agree that narrative research is the study of experience.

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Education Finance

Details: Introduction. Education finance refers to governmental and organizational processes by which revenues are generated (through taxation, tuition, fees, and philanthropy), distributed, and expended for the operational and capital support of formal schooling. Scholars and professionals knowledgeable regarding economics, public finance, school

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Theories of Educational Leadership

Details: In this article, educational leadership is the professional practice of a leader (or leaders) in an administrative role (s) working with, guiding, and influencing educators in a particular context toward improving learning and other educational processes in early childhood education centers and in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary

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Social Studies Education

Details: General Overviews. The following general works provide a well-balanced introduction to the broad field of social studies education. The National Council for the Social Studies 2010 curriculum standards (see under Definition) is a thoughtful and organized text that outlines the purpose, goals, and standards for social studies.As the world changes and schools evolve, the state of social studies

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Online Education

Details: Introduction. Online education is considered the latest generation in the practice of distance education. As described by professionals in the field, distance education is a form of teaching and learning characterized by the physical separation of student from teacher and from other students.

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Politics of Education

Details: The Prehistory of Education Politics. One of the best places to start when trying to grasp the schooling enterprise that, after 1959, began to be seen as one of the nation’s core political institutions is Tyack 1974, a classic description of how local, village, and community schools throughout the nation sought to become the “one best system.”.” This book tells the story of how schools

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Inservice Teacher Education

Details: Introduction. Inservice teacher education is broadly defined as any learning opportunity for practicing teachers. The term inservice teacher designates a teacher that has certification or is already teaching in a classroom, in contrast to a preservice teacher, who is in the process of preparing to become a teacher.Preservice and inservice teacher learning have changed over time.

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Higher Education Governance

Details: Introduction. The governance of higher education has been a prominent topic for investigation at least since Burton Clark’s foundational 1983 study on the higher education system (see General Overview and Historical Studies).While there is no universally agreed definition of governance in general or governance in the area of higher education, there are certain characteristics of it that are

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Social Context of Education

Details: Democracy and Education. What is the purpose of public education in a democracy? Tyack 1966 answers this question with a seminal piece on the history of public education. Barber 1992 moves from the historical rationale for public education—creating a civil society—to examine the contradictions and challenges of this education goal in a contemporary democracy filled with …

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Data Collection in Educational Research

Details: Specific to education, Gall, et al. 2007 is a frequently cited text that contains most educational data collection techniques, although it tends to emphasize more traditional quantitative approaches. Johnson and Christensen 2014 offers a more balanced treatment meant for novice researchers and educational research consumers.

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Standards-Based Education

Details: The Glossary of Education Reform is a broad online resource created by the Great Schools Partnership. It describes terms, concepts, and strategies commonly used in relation to school-improvement reforms. A distinction is made between standards-related concepts, such as standards-based and standards-referenced concepts, together with examples illustrating this distinction.

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Methodologies for Conducting Education Research

Details: Introduction. Education is a diverse field and methodologies used in education research are necessarily diverse. The reasons for the methodological diversity of education research are many, including the fact that the field of education is composed of a multitude of disciplines and tensions between basic and applied research.

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Museums, Education, and Curriculum

Details: The relationship between museums, education, and curricula is complex. Many early museums—established in order to study, showcase, and preserve collections of art, artifacts, and specimens—typically had narrowly defined educational goals or purposes. Over time and particularly by the 20th century, museums reframed their focus as locations

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Comparative Education

Details: Comparative education is a loosely bounded field that examines the sources, workings, and outcomes of education systems, as well as leading education issues, from comprehensive, multidisciplinary, cross-national, and cross-cultural perspectives. Despite the diversity of approaches to studying relations between education and society, Arnove, et

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Higher Education and Globalization

Details: DOI: 10.1002/9781444319514. Originally published in 1996. This book is among the most influential works on globalization theory and has left a strong impression on higher education studies. It is a foundational text for understanding the development and significance of communicative globalization on academic work.

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History of Education in the United States

Details: An early textbook that offers a chronological history of schools in the United States from colonial Virginia to the beginning of the 20th century. Teacher training programs, higher education institutions, and regional analyses is the primary focus of the book. Book is …

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Reliability in Educational Assessments

Details: One of the important broad overview works in test theory is the professional standards for educational and psychological testing, which were developed under the joint leadership of three professional organizations (American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education).

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Philosophy of Education

Details: Philosophy of education includes the investigation of the ethical, political, social, epistemological, metaphysical, and ontological dimensions of education. Philosophy of education is certainly the oldest of the educational subfields, dating at least as far back as ancient Athens with its Sophists and their greatest critics, Socrates and Plato

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Academic Audit for Universities

Details: Academic audit for universities is a topic that is complex, technical, and laden with controversy. While the term “academic audit” is associated with evaluation in higher education, the term “quality assurance” is often linked to, and more frequently used in, frameworks of governance, regulation, and academic standards discourse.

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Sociology of Education

Details: In Knowledge, education and social change: Papers in the sociology of education. Edited by Richard Brown. Tavistock, UK: Tavistock. The authors’ main focus was the structural reproduction of disadvantages and inequalities that are caused by cultural reproduction. According to the authors, inequalities are recycled through the education system

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Early Childhood Education Policy

Details: Increased interest in early childhood education policy is due to three critical factors, all of which demonstrate the relevance of this new domain as a branch of government and regulatory frameworks. (1) Since 98 percent of the early childhood sector workforce is female, policy making in this sector is significantly informed by economic

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Critical Race Theory

Details: Education scholars who write from a CRT perspective pay homage to its legal underpinnings, but they have also added new ideas and thinking from sociology, anthropology, and qualitative research methodology. Like their predecessors in the legal arena, education scholars who employ CRT view racism as a permanent fixture of American society.

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Restorative Practices

Details: Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing application of restorative practices in education, counseling, and other professional disciplines. Restorative practices are gaining popularity in educational settings such as K–12 schools and universities where they are used to establish proactive school discipline, a positive school climate, and

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Using Ethnography in Educational Research

Details: Education is ubiquitous, and there are many approaches to its ethnographic study. Participant observation is integral to many—but not all—ethnographers. Researchers use a range of qualitative methods (including sensory, visual, and creative approaches) to immerse themselves in, and make sense of, educational cultures.

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Science Education

Details: General Overview. For overviews of current thinking about K–12 science education, several reports are helpful. Bevilacqua, et al. 2001 provides an overview of the connection between the history and philosophy of science and science education. For research on how children learn science and relevant implications for science instruction in grades K–8, Duschl, et al. 2007 is an excellent

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Learning Difficulties

Details: Learning difficulties is an umbrella term for academic problems of different origin. It comprises general learning deficits and low academic performance, for example, in the context of disabilities as well as specific forms like reading, spelling, and arithmetic disorders. As a consequence, many different denotations exist that try to

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Bilingual Education and Bilingualism

Details: General Overviews. While there is an abundance of literature on bilingualism and bilingual education, two introductory texts stand out. These two texts were selected for their clarity, usefulness, and endurance in the field, as well as for the academic credentials and the …

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Moral Development

Details: Moral education derived in part from Kohlberg’s work and his development of a school program called the “just community,” where students increased their moral reasoning through democratic participation in the running of the school. As a more Aristotelian, virtues-oriented philosophical approach took hold in the 1990s, the character

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Historical Evolution of Higher Education in the United

Details: The higher education system also faces a number of pressing challenges: rising costs, declining public support, high student attrition, and long time-to-degree that often results in no degree at all, especially at two-year colleges where the majority of poor and underrepresented minority students enroll. The US higher education system, existing

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High-stakes Testing

Details: High-stakes testing in schools is based on the premise that student learning will increase if educators and students are held accountable for achievement. By definition, testing becomes high stakes when the outcomes are used to make decisions about promotion, admissions, graduation, and salaries. High-stakes testing is often associated with

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Podcasts in Education

Details: This work includes theoreticals for why a teacher would want to use podcasting in higher education as well, so it is a good starting point for educators. Abel, Jessica. 2015. Out on the wire: The storytelling secrets of the new masters of radio. New York: Broadway Books.

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Gender and Achievement

Details: A global view on gender and education, including chapters on topics vital in developing countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, pointing out that the discourse on gender equality in education in “richer Western economies” (p. 1) is different from the concerns of educationalists working on gender equality in developing countries.

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Distance Learning

Details: Distance learning, also referred to as “distance education” and sometimes simply as “online learning” or “distributed learning,” is a term used to describe the practice of learning at a distance. Historically, distance learning dates back to the 1880s and was defined by a teacher and a student being separated by space and time.

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Linguistic Diversity

Details: This foregrounds a key issue in linguistic diversity in education: the status of a language mirrors the social, economic, and political standing of its speakers. Thus, official policies specifying the medium-of-instruction in schools are not necessarily or even primarily based on linguistic considerations, but are tied to larger power relations

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Traditions of Quality Improvement in Education

Details: The past twenty years have seen increasing interest in the tools, processes, and methodologies of improvement research in education. Variously termed continuous improvement, quality improvement, and the like, these approaches to systematically improving practice comprise (in their best instantiations) a science of educational improvement.

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Student Assignment Policy

Details: Student assignment is a topic of study in educational policy that focuses on the processes by which students are allocated into schools and classrooms. In this subfield of educational policy studies, scholars also study the results from such decisions. Student assignment polices have been influenced historically by federal litigation but remain

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Family and Community Partnerships in Education

Details: Education often involves partnerships, of which the teacher-learner relationship, as the most fundamental, is perhaps the most widely theorized and researched. However, many different kinds of partnerships exist in education settings, and they can occur at different levels within an education …

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Multiliteracies in Early Childhood Education

Details: This New Media Consortium report identifies trends, challenges, and developments in educational technology that will impact teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in K–12 education. Technology is seen as an enabler but does compensate for gaps in student performance attributable to socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and gender.

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