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6.2 A short history of educational technology

Details: Arguments about the role of technology in education go back at least 2,500 years. To understand better the role and influence of technology on teaching, we need a little history, because as always there are lessons to be learned from history. Paul Saettler’s ‘The Evolution of American Educational Technology‘ (1990) is one of the most

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Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st Canadian Edition – …

Details: This adapted open-access Canadian Nursing Pharmacology textbook was designed specifically for the entry-level undergraduate nursing student. It is also applicable to other health disciplines for use. This textbook explores pharmacological concepts by showing the connections between pathophysiology, pharmacological principles, and common

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Preface – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st Canadian …

Details: Preface. This adapted open-access Canadian Nursing Pharmacology textbook, was designed specifically for the entry-level undergraduate nursing student. It is also applicable to other health disciplines for use. This textbook explores pharmacological concepts by showing the connections between pathophysiology, pharmacological principles, and

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Appendix F: Punctuation Matters – Technical Writing Essentials – …

Details: Punctuation was initially developed to help people who were giving speeches or reading aloud. Various kinds of punctuation indicated when and for how long the reader should pause between phrases, clauses, and sentences: Comma = 1 second pause. Semicolon = 2 second pause. Colon = 3 second pause. Period = 4 second pause.

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Chapter 3 Answer Key – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: In order to prevent malaria, the CDC recommends clients should take antimalarial medications for four weeks after leaving the infected area. The nurse should provide additional client education to the client regarding this recommendation and evaluate for client understanding. Activity Section 3.17a. Metronidazole is commonly used to treat C-diff.

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3.9 Monobactams – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: 3.9 Monobactams. Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Like penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, monobactams also have a beta-lactam ring structure. Indications for Use: Monobactams are narrow-spectrum antibacterial medications that are used primarily to treat gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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8.8 Antimania – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: 8.8 Antimania. Mood stabilizers are used to treat bipolar affective disorder. Lithium was the first medication used to treat this disorder and is sometimes referred to as an anti-mania drug because it can help control the mania that occurs in bipolar disorder. Lithium must be closely monitored with a narrow therapeutic range.

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5.14 Xanthine Derivatives – Fundamentals of Nursing …

Details: They should avoid irritants and drink fluids to help thin secretions. Clients will need to have their serum blood levels tested every six to twelve months. [2] Now let’s take a closer look at the medication card on theophylline in Table 5.14. [3], [4],[5] Table 5.14 Theophylline Medication Card. Frandsen, G. & Pennington, S. (2018).

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2.1 Safety and Ethics Introduction – Fundamentals of Nursing

Details: Globally, the cost associated with medication errors has been estimated at $42 billion USD annually.”. [1] This chapter will examine the safety and ethical foundations of medication administration by nurses, as well as the practice standards and cultural and social issues that must be considered to ensure the safe and effective administration

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6.4 Clinical Reasoning and Decision-Making Related to Perfusion …

Details: Additional client education before discharge home is often required, especially if new medications are prescribed. Nurses should continue to monitor a client’s blood pressure, heart rate, intake and output, edema, or other cardiac assessments to evaluate if ordered cardiac agents are effective or if further treatment or dosage adjustment is

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4.11 Alpha-2 Antagonists – Fundamentals of Nursing …

Details: 4.11 Alpha-2 Antagonists Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Clonidine is an Alpha-2 antagonist. Mechanism of Action: Clonidine reduces sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system and decreases peripheral resistance and renal vascular resistance. Indications for Use: Clonidine is used to treat hypertension (HTN) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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10.1 Pain and Mobility Introduction – Fundamentals of Nursing

Details: Identify considerations and implications of using pain and mobility-related medications across the lifespan. Consider evidence-based concepts when using the nursing process, clinical reasoning, and decision-making related to medications for pain and mobility. Consider the impact of opioid analgesics on the overdose crisis and the responsibility

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4.13 Beta-1 Antagonists – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology …

Details: 4.13 Beta-1 Antagonists. Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Metoprolol is a selective Beta-1 antagonist. Mechanism of Action: Metoprolol primarily blocks Beta-1 receptors in the heart, causing decreased heart rate and decreased blood pressure. However, higher doses can also block Beta-2 receptors in the lungs, causing bronchoconstriction.

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9.5 Antidiabetics – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: 9.5 Antidiabetics Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Pancreatic Basics: A&P Review Pancreas. The pancreas is a long, slender organ located near the stomach (see Figure 9.5a). [1] Although it is primarily an exocrine gland, secreting a variety of digestive enzymes, the pancreas also has an endocrine function.Pancreatic islets, clusters of cells formerly known as the islets …

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4.12 Beta-1 Agonists – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: 4.12 Beta-1 Agonists Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Dobutamine is a Beta-1 agonist. Mechanism of Action: Dobutamine stimulates Beta-1 receptors to increase heart rate, force of contraction, and conduction velocity. Indications for Use: Dobutamine is used to treat cardiogenic shock and severe heart failure to increase contractility and cardiac output.

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3.8 Carbapenems – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: 3.8 Carbapenems. Carbapenems are a beta-lactam “cousin” to penicillins and cephalosporins. Indications for Use: Carbapenems are useful for treating life-threatening, multidrug-resistant infections due to their broad spectrum of activity. [1] These antibiotics are effective in treating gram-positive and gram-negative infections.

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4.10 Alpha-1 Antagonists – Fundamentals of Nursing …

Details: 4.10 Alpha-1 Antagonists Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Tamsulosin is an Alpha-1 antagonist. Mechanism of Action: Tamsulosin selectively blocks alpha receptors in the prostate, leading to the relaxation of smooth muscles in the bladder, neck, and prostate, thus improving urine flow and reducing symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH).

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4.8 Muscarinic Antagonists – Fundamentals of Nursing …

Details: 4.8 Muscarinic Antagonists. Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist. Mechanism of Action: Specific anticholinergic responses are dose-related. Small doses of atropine inhibit salivary and bronchial secretions and sweating. Moderate doses dilate the pupil, inhibit accommodation, and increase the heart rate

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4.16 Alpha and Beta Receptor Agonists (Catecholamines) – …

Details: Patient Teaching & Education with EpiPen: Epinephrine formulated in a pen for injection is known as EpiPen. EpiPen is used for severe allergic reactions after exposure to an allergen like a bee sting. Check expiration date, store at room temperature, and protect from light. Effects fade after 15-20 minutes, so seek medical care immediately.

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Chapter 4 Answer Key – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: 1. A potential side effect of nicotine is the activation of the sympathetic nervous system that causes an increased heart rate. Nausea and weakness are potential side effects that can indicate nicotine overdose. The nurse should provide education to the client regarding the avoidance of additional nicotine when using the nicotine patch.

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3.18 Antiprotozoals – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: Indications: Metronidazole is an example of an antiprotozoal antibacterial medication gel that is commonly used to treat acne rosacea, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomonas. Metronidazole IV is used to treat Giardia and also serious anaerobic bacterial infections such as Clostridium difficile (C-diff). Mechanism of Action: Many antiprotozoal

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2.3 Legal Foundations and National Guidelines – Fundamentals of …

Details: A PMP “collects information about prescription and dispensing of controlled substances for the purposes of monitoring, analysis and education. In Canada, it is the responsibility of the provincial institutions to organize, maintain and run such programs”.

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6.11 Antilipemics – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: Client Teaching & Education. Clients should take the prescribed medication as directed and avoid consuming grapefruit juice during drug therapy. The medication should be used with dietary modifications. If the client experiences muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, these should be reported to the healthcare provider. [4]

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3.15 Antivirals – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: 3.15 Antivirals. Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Figure 3.10 Images of viruses (a) Members of the Coronavirus family can cause respiratory infections like the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Here they are viewed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

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4.9 Alpha-1 Agonists – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: 4.9 Alpha-1 Agonists Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine are Alpha-1 agonists. Mechanism of Action: Alpha-1 agonists stimulate alpha receptors in the respiratory tract, causing constriction of blood vessels and shrinkage of swollen nasal mucous membranes, thus increasing airway patency and reducing nasal congestion.

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3.19 Antihelmintic – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st

Details: 3.19 Antihelmintic. Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) There are two major groups of parasitic helminths: the roundworms (Nematoda) and flatworms (Platyhelminthes). See Figure 3.15 for images of a tapeworm and a guinea worm. [1] Of the many species that exist in these groups, about half are parasitic and some are important human pathogens.

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5.9 Expectorants – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: 5.9 Expectorants Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Expectorants. Guaifenesin (Mucinex) is an example of an expectorant. Mechanism of Action. Expectorants reduce the viscosity of tenacious secretions by irritating the gastric vagal receptors that stimulate respiratory tract fluid, thus increasing the volume but decreasing the viscosity of respiratory tract secretions.

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5.8 Antitussives – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: Client Teaching & Education. Clients should take care to avoid irritants that stimulate their cough. Additionally, antitussive medications can cause drowsiness, and clients should avoid taking them with other CNS depressants or alcohol. [3] Now let’s take a closer look at the medication card on dextromethorphan in Table 5.8. [4], [5], [6]

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4.14 Beta-2 Agonists – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: 4.14 Beta-2 Agonists. Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Albuterol is a Beta-2 agonist. Mechanism of Action: Albuterol is a selective Beta-2 agonist primarily used to cause bronchodilation in the lungs. However, Beta-2 receptors in the heart can also be stimulated, causing cardiovascular side effects.

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8.6 CNS Stimulants – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st

Details: Client Teaching & Education. There are several important topics to address with clients and/or parents of minor children. Misuse and Dependence: Advise clients that methylphenidate is a controlled substance, and it can be misused and lead to dependence. Instruct clients that they should not give methylphenidate to anyone else.

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6.10 Anti-hypertensives – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology …

Details: Client Teaching & Education. Clients should be compliant with medication therapy and take the medication at the same time each day. They should be careful not to take more than the prescribed dose within a 24-hour period, or abruptly cease medication, as rebound hypertension might occur. Medications may cause orthostatic changes, so individuals

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10.9 Antigout – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: Client Teaching & Education. The medication should be taken as directed. An alkaline diet may be ordered for the client, and they may be advised to increase fluid intake to prevent kidney stone formation. The medication may cause dizziness or drowsiness. Clients who consume large amounts of alcohol may increase uric acid concentrations and

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6.6 Antiarrhythmics – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: Client Teaching & Education. Clients should be advised to closely follow the recommended dosing regimen. Clients or family members may need instruction on how to take a pulse rate and should report any pulse less than 50 bpm. Clients should also be advised that this medication may cause dizziness and visual changes.

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6.8 Antianginal Drugs – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: Client Teaching & Education. Instruct client to avoid eating or smoking during administration as this may alter absorption. Clients should sit during administration to decrease the risk for injury due to the possibility of hypotension, dizziness, and weakness. Nitroglycerin decomposes when exposed to heat or light, so it should be stored in the

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6.12 Blood Coagulation Modifiers – Fundamentals of Nursing …

Details: Client Teaching & Education. Clients should report tinnitus, unusual bleeding of the gums, bruising, or blood in the stool to the healthcare provider immediately. While on antiplatelet therapy, clients should avoid alcohol to prevent gastric irritation. Additionally, clients should avoid NSAIDs while receiving antiplatelet therapy.

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6.7 Cardiac Glycosides – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – …

Details: Clients should receive education regarding pulse rate monitoring and report any pulse rate less than 60. If the client experiences signs of digoxin toxicity, this should be reported to the provider immediately. The medication should be stored in its original container and care should be taken not to mix the medication with other medications.

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7.7 Antiemetics – Fundamentals of Nursing Pharmacology – 1st …

Details: Patient Teaching & Education. Teach clients to immediately inform the healthcare provider if they experience new feelings of depression or abnormal muscle movements they cannot control such as: lip-smacking, chewing, or puckering of the mouth; frowning or scowling; sticking out the tongue; blinking and moving the eyes; shaking of the arms and

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University Canada West (UCW) – Post-Secondary Directory

Details: The adoption of OERs in courses addresses issues around access, alleviates financial barriers and makes education more accessible for students. Courses that are fully OER, and require no purchasing of textbooks or resources, will be listed in the course description section with the below symbol. [1]

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