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education | Definition, Development, History, Types

Details: Education in primitive and early civilized cultures Prehistoric and primitive cultures. The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of enculturation, which is the process of cultural transmission.A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a relatively fixed sense of cultural continuity and timelessness.

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Italy - Education | Britannica

Details: Italy - Italy - Education: The constitution guarantees the freedom of art, science, and teaching. It also provides for state schools and guarantees the independence of the universities. Private schools (mainly run by religious bodies) are permitted. The constitution further states that the public schools are open to all and makes provision for scholarships and grants.

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Education - Athens | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Athens: Beginning at a date difficult to fix precisely (at the end of the 7th or during the 6th century), Athens, in contrast to Sparta, became the first to renounce education oriented toward the future duties of the soldier. The Athenian citizen, of course, was always obliged, when necessary and capable, to fight for the fatherland, but the civil aspect of life and

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Chad - Education | Britannica

Details: Chad - Chad - Education: The size of the country, the dispersion of populations, and the occasional reluctance to send children to school all constitute educational problems that the government is endeavouring to overcome. Less than half of the school-age population is enrolled. Missions and public education services are responsible for primary education.

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China - Education | Britannica

Details: Education. The educational system in China is a major vehicle for both inculcating values in and teaching needed skills to its people. Traditional Chinese culture attached great importance to education as a means of enhancing a person’s worth and career. In the early 1950s the Chinese communists worked hard to increase the country’s rate of literacy, an effort that won them considerable

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Germany - Education | Britannica

Details: Germany - Germany - Education: Full-time schooling is free and compulsory for children age 6 to 15 or 16; the exact age is determined at the state level. Although the control of education rests with the states, there is a national commission that strives for uniformity of curriculum, requirements, and standards. Some books and study materials are free, and financial assistance and other forms

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Mozambique - Education | Britannica

Details: Mozambique - Mozambique - Education: The Portuguese educational system was two-tiered—designed to promote rudimentary skills among the majority African population and to provide liberal and technical education for the settler population and a tiny minority of Africans. More than four-fifths of students enrolled in the colonial system were restricted to the rudimentary program.

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Education - Nazi Germany | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Nazi Germany: After Adolf Hitler’s accession to power in 1933, the Nazis set out to reconstruct German society. To do that, the totalitarian government attempted to exert complete control over the populace. Every institution was infused with National Socialist ideology and infiltrated by Nazi personnel in chief positions.

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Ethiopia - Education | Britannica

Details: Public education is free at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Primary education is offered for eight years and is compulsory between ages 7 and 12. Four years of secondary education, comprising two two-year cycles, follow. Primary schools are generally accessible, and there is a high rate of enrollment; in contrast, there is a shortage

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Zambia - Education | Britannica

Details: Zambia - Zambia - Education: At independence Zambia had one of the most poorly developed education systems of Britain’s former colonies, with just 109 university graduates and less than 0.5 percent of the population estimated to have completed primary education. Among these, African women were almost entirely absent. The country has since invested heavily in education at all levels.

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Education - Education in classical cultures | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Education in classical cultures: India is the site of one of the most ancient civilizations in the world. The Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India in the 2nd millennium bce established large-scale settlements and founded powerful kingdoms. In the course of time, a group of intellectuals, the Brahmans, became priests and men of learning; another group, of

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Iran - Education | Britannica

Details: Iran - Iran - Education: Education is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 11. Roughly four-fifths of men and two-thirds of women are literate. Primary education is followed by a three-year guidance cycle, which assesses students’ aptitudes and determines whether they will enter an academic, scientific, or vocational program during high school.

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Education - Education in the earliest civilizations

Details: Education - Education - Education in the earliest civilizations: The history of civilization started in the Middle East about 3000 bce, whereas the North China civilization began about a millennium and a half later. The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase (3000–1500 bce).

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Sweden - Education | Britannica

Details: Sweden - Sweden - Education: The education system is, with few exceptions, public and open to all without fees. Primary schools are run by the municipalities, as are the secondary schools. Universities and colleges are administered by the state, but they have been given far-reaching autonomy in the use of resources. Academic freedom is carefully guarded by faculty and students alike.

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Education - Education and economic development | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Education and economic development: One explanation for the changes evidenced in this “institutionalist” view of education can be found in the human-capital theory first popularized by American economist Theodore Schultz in “Investment in Human Capital,” his presidential address to the American Economic Association in 1960.

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Education - Progressive education | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Progressive education: The progressive education movement was part and parcel of a broader social and political reform called the Progressive movement, which dated to the last decades of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th. Elementary education had spread throughout the Western world, largely doing away with illiteracy and raising the level of social

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Education - Education in the 20th century | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Education in the 20th century: International wars, together with an intensification of internal stresses and conflicts among social, racial, and ideological groups, characterized the 20th century and had profound effects on education. Some of the changes that had far-reaching effects were the rapidly spreading prosperity but widening gaps between rich and poor, an

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Teacher education | Britannica

Details: Teacher education, as it exists today, can be divided into two stages, preservice and in-service. Preservice education includes all the stages of education and training that precede the teacher’s entry to paid employment in a school. In-service training is the education and training that the teacher receives after the beginning of his career.

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Uruguay - Education | Britannica

Details: Uruguay - Uruguay - Education: Uruguay has a high literacy rate, comparable to those of most developed nations. Education is compulsory for students aged 6–11 and free at all levels—primary, secondary, technical school, and university. Montevideo is the national centre for higher education. The University of the Republic (1849) has numerous faculties, including a distinguished medical

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Bangladesh - Education | Britannica

Details: Education. The foundation of the educational system in Bangladesh was laid down during the period of British rule. The system has three levels—primary, secondary, and higher education.Primary and secondary education are both compulsory, though universal participation has remained more an ideal than a fact. Primary education consists of eight years, while secondary education lasts four years.

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Morocco - Education | Britannica

Details: Morocco - Morocco - Education: Morocco allocates approximately one-fifth of its budget to education. Much of this is spent on building schools to accommodate the rapidly growing population. Education is mandatory for children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. In urban areas the majority of children in this age group attend school, though on a national scale the level of participation drops

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Education - The Byzantine Empire | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - The Byzantine Empire: The Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the Roman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean area after the loss of the western provinces to Germanic kingdoms in the 5th century. Although it lost some of its eastern lands to the Muslims in the 7th century, it lasted until Constantinople—the new capital founded by the Roman emperor Constantine the

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Paris - Education | Britannica

Details: Paris - Paris - Education: As in the rest of France, schools are largely in the hands of the state and are of three main kinds: primary, junior secondary (collèges), and senior secondary (lycées). A significant minority of all pupils are in private, nonstate schools, most of them run by the Roman Catholic Church. Some of the best-known lycées in central Paris are the Lycée Henri-IV, the

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Venezuela - Education | Britannica

Details: Venezuela - Venezuela - Education: Basic education is free and compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15. Secondary education, which lasts for 2 years, is also free but not required. More than nine-tenths of Venezuelans age 15 and older are literate. The vast majority of Venezuelan children are enrolled in school, but nearly half the adults have no secondary education and a large number have no

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Chile - Education | Britannica

Details: Education. Chile’s educational system, structured along the lines of 19th-century French and German models and highly regarded among Latin American countries, is divided into eight years of free and compulsory basic (primary) education, four years of optional secondary or vocational education, and additional (varying) years of higher education.More than nine-tenths of Chileans age 15 and

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France - Education | Britannica

Details: France - France - Education: The organization of national education is highly centralized. Since 1968, however, following rioting among university students seeking a greater voice in their administration, a movement toward decentralization has been in progress in higher education. Reforms have sought to modify the character and structure of education, not only at the university level but also

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Education - Global trends in education | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Global trends in education: One of the most significant phenomena of the 20th century was the dramatic expansion and extension of public (i.e., government-sponsored) education systems around the world—the number of schools grew, as did the number of children attending them. Similarly, the subjects taught in schools broadened from the basics of mathematics and language

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Bhutan - Education | Britannica

Details: Bhutan - Bhutan - Education: Until the early 1960s, no formal schools existed in Bhutan except those for religious instruction. Since then considerable progress has been made in education, and primary and secondary schools have been established throughout the country. By the end of the 20th century, a policy had been adopted whereby a major portion of the annual government budget was directed

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Special education | Britannica

Details: Special education for people with disabilities became universal in developed countries by the late 20th century. Concurrent with this development was the identification of two concepts of individual differences: (1) “ interindividual differences,” which compares one child with another, and (2) “ intraindividual differences,” which compares the child’s abilities in one area with the

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Education - Revolutionary patterns of education | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Revolutionary patterns of education: At the turn of the 20th century the Russian Empire was in some respects educationally backward. According to the census of 1897, only 24 percent of the population above the age of nine were literate. By 1914 the rate had risen to roughly 40 percent. The large quota of illiteracy reflected the fact that by this time only about half

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Ecuador - Education | Britannica

Details: Ecuador - Ecuador - Education: The network of public education has been greatly expanded to promote the goal of universal literacy. Primary education is free and compulsory for six years beginning at age six. Ecuador has made progress in making education available to disadvantaged classes and ethnic groups and to women. Religious and nondenominational private schools also play a significant role.

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Austria - Education | Britannica

Details: Education. The federal government oversees education in Austria. A major reform of the school administrative structure, providing for a unitary school system with access to higher education and experimentation with various types of schools, was initiated in 1970 and led to an “educational revolution” with free access to many avenues of basic, advanced, and vocational instruction for everyone.

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Islam - Education | Britannica

Details: Islam - Islam - Education: Muslim educational activity began in the 8th century, primarily in order to disseminate the teaching of the Qurʾān and the Sunnah of the Prophet. The first task in this endeavour was to record the oral traditions and collect the written manuscripts. This information was systematically organized in the 2nd century ah, and in the following century a sound corpus was

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Malawi - Education | Britannica

Details: Malawi - Malawi - Education: Primary education, which begins at age six and lasts for eight years, is compulsory. Secondary education, made up of two cycles of two years each, begins at age 14. Primary education was made free in 1994, leading to a considerable increase in the already high student-teacher ratio and underscoring the growing need for the expansion of postprimary education.

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Education - Aims and purposes of Muslim education | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Aims and purposes of Muslim education: Islam placed a high value on education, and, as the faith spread among diverse peoples, education became an important channel through which to create a universal and cohesive social order. By the middle of the 9th century, knowledge was divided into three categories: the Islamic sciences, the philosophical and natural sciences

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Scotland - Education | Britannica

Details: Scotland - Scotland - Education: Scotland’s education system is rooted in tradition. Schools run by the church existed in the Middle Ages, and by the end of the 15th century Scotland already had three universities. Towns were involved in founding schools by the 16th century, and during the 17th century the old Scottish Parliament passed several acts encouraging the establishment of schools.

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education - Kids | Britannica Kids | Homework Help

Details: Education is the process of gathering information about the world and oneself. Formal education is learning that takes place in schools or with private teachers. People also learn from their families, with friends, while traveling, and in many other places. This is called informal education.

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Education - Thomist philosophy | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Thomist philosophy: In the long view, the greatest educational and philosophical influence of the age was St. Thomas Aquinas, who in the 13th century made a monumental attempt to reconcile the two great streams of the Western tradition. In his teaching at the University of Paris and in his writings—particularly the Summa theologiae and the Summa contra gentiles

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Education - Education in the Tokugawa era | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Education in the Tokugawa era: In 1603 a shogunate was established by a warrior, Tokugawa Ieyasu, in the city of Edo (present Tokyo). The period thence to the year 1867—the Tokugawa, or Edo, era—constitutes the later feudal period in Japan. This era, though also dominated by warriors, differed from former ones in that internal disturbances finally ended and long

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Kenya - Education | Britannica

Details: Kenya - Kenya - Education: The national educational system consists of three levels: eight years of compulsory primary education (beginning at age six), four years at the secondary level, and four years of higher education. The government provides free primary and secondary education. Entrance into secondary school is contingent upon obtaining the Kenyan Certificate of Primary Education by

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Education - The background and influence of naturalism

Details: Education - Education - The background and influence of naturalism: Pietists emphasized Christian devotion and diligence as paths to the good life; Enlightenment thinkers focused on reason and clear thinking as the sensible way to happiness. Rousseau and his followers were intrigued by a third and more elusive ideal: naturalism. Rousseau, in his A Discourse on Inequality, an account of the

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South Sudan - Education | Britannica

Details: Education. Prior to Sudan’s independence in 1956, the British colonial administration had little educational infrastructure established in the southern Sudan, and Christian missionaries assumed responsibility for formal education there. Southern education suffered during Sudan’s subsequent civil wars (1955–72; 1983–2005); the national authorities curtailed missionary activities

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Education - Japan | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Japan: In 1867 the Tokugawa (Edo) shogunate, a dynasty of military rulers established in 1603, was overthrown and the imperial authority of the Meiji dynasty was restored, leading to drastic reforms of the social system. This process has been called the Meiji Restoration, and it ushered in the establishment of a politically unified and modernized state.

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Education - The Calvinist Reformation | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - The Calvinist Reformation: The Protestant reformer John Calvin was of French origin, but he settled in Geneva and made this Swiss city one of the most prominent centres of the Reformation. Unlike Luther, whose reforms were backed by princes hoping to gain greater political independence, Calvin was supported by the new mercantile class, which needed political and

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Education - The Carolingian renaissance and its aftermath

Details: Education - Education - The Carolingian renaissance and its aftermath: Charlemagne (742/743–814) has been represented as the sponsor or even creator of medieval education, and the Carolingian renaissance has been represented as the renewal of Western culture. This renaissance, however, built on earlier episcopal and monastic developments, and, although Charlemagne did help to ensure the

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Education - Education in the later Roman Empire | Britannica

Details: Education in the later Roman Empire. The dominant fact is the extraordinary continuity of the methods of Roman education throughout such a long succession of centuries. Whatever the profound transformations in the Roman world politically, economically, and socially, the same educational institutions, the same pedagogical methods, the same curricula were perpetuated without great change for

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Education - The Mughal period | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - The Mughal period: The credit for organizing education on a systematic basis goes to Akbar (1542–1605), a contemporary of Queen Elizabeth I of England and undoubtedly the greatest of Mughal emperors. He treated all his subjects alike and opened a large number of schools and colleges for Muslims as well as for Hindus throughout his empire.

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Education - Education after World War II | Britannica

Details: Education after World War II. On Aug. 14, 1945, Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration and surrendered unconditionally to the Allied powers.The overriding concern at the general headquarters (GHQ) of the Allied powers was the immediate abolition of militaristic education and ultranationalistic ideology.This was the theme of a directive issued by GHQ to the Japanese government in October 1945.

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Education - Luther and the German Reformation | Britannica

Details: Education - Education - Luther and the German Reformation: Luther specifically wished his humble social origins to be considered a title of nobility. He wanted to create educational institutions that would be open to the sons of peasants and miners, though this did not mean giving them political representation. (The German princes were glad to promote the Reformation on condition that it would

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